10-Rep Learning ~ Teague's Tech Treks

Learning Technology & Tech Observations by Dr. Helen Teague


Weekend Ed. Quote: May 24 in Honor of Memorial Day

“We Live in the Wind and the Sand and Our Eyes are on the Stars” ~ WASP Motto

WASP Motto

Image Found Here: http://www.robinsonlibrary.com/history/history/worldwar2/wasp.htm

The Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP), (also Women’s Army Service Pilots or Women’s Auxiliary Service Pilots were a civilian women pilots’ organization, whose members were United States federal civil service employees. The 1074 members of WASP became trained pilots who tested aircraft, ferried aircraft and trained other pilots. Their purpose was to free male pilots for combat roles during World War II. The WASP museum is located on Avenger Field in Sweetwater, Texas.

The WASPs flew more than 60 million miles flying planes out of 192 bases. One pilot, Gertrude “Tommy” Tompkins Silver was the only Women Airforce Service Pilots member to go missing during World War II. On October 26, 1944, Tompkins piloted her plane from a foggy runway on Mines Field, adjacent to the Los Angeles airport, and was not heard from again.

WASPs with PT-19, the first plane usually flown in primary training. Women on far left in dark glasses is Gertrude “Tommy” Tompkins, according to Texas Women’s University Libraries WASP Archives.

WASPs with PT-19, the first plane usually flown in primary training. Women on far left in dark glasses is Gertrude “Tommy” Tompkins, according to Texas Women’s University Libraries WASP Archives.


Mr. Frank Jacobs , a retired aerospace engineer from Manhattan Beach, California has a haunting childhood memory of seeing a plane crash into the Santa Monica bay that day. He still dives to find Gertrude “Tommy” Tompkins as poart of the  Missing Aircraft Search Team. Read his account at this link from the Deep Explorers’ blog: http://www.deepexplorers.com/history/last-missing-wasp/ 

In July, 2008,  President Obama signed legislation finally granting WASPs the Congressional Gold Medal, in recognition of their service. In honor of Memorial Day, May 27, it is important to remember all who served for the United States.

The 2017 YA book  Seized by the Sun written by Jim Ure tells the life story of Gertrude “Tommy” Tompkins




More more information on the brave WASP pilots, click to the Robinson Library history page.



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LOC and the Tweets!

Quick Digital Factoid:

Did you know that there is a Tweet Archive in the Library of Congress (LOC)?  An LOC post confirmed that “In 2010, the Library of Congress announced an exciting and groundbreaking acquisition—a gift from Twitter of the entire archive of public tweet text beginning with the first tweets of 2006 through 2010, and continuing with all public tweet text going forward.”

As of Jan 4, 2013 there were 170 billion tweets available for research purposes.

According to the Library of Congress website in January, 2013, “This month, all those objectives will be completed. We now have an archive of approximately 170 billion tweets and growing. The volume of tweets the Library receives each day has grown from 140 million beginning in February 2011 to nearly half a billion tweets each day as of October 2012. The Library’s focus now is on addressing the significant technology challenges to making the archive accessible to researchers in a comprehensive, useful way. These efforts are ongoing and a priority for the Library.”

But, then, I guess the LOC started actually reading all the tweets,
and the meme
the giphys
not to mention all the cat vids.

So…by 2018, the LOC updated its policy, “Effective Jan. 1, 2018, the Library will acquire tweets on a selective basis—similar to our collections of web sites.

Read the full factoid: https://blogs.loc.gov/loc/2013/01/update-on-the-twitter-archive-at-the-library-of-congress/

Probably an excellent idea.

More information is available in the attached white paper.

Blog post: “Library Acquires Entire Twitter Archive,” April 14, 2010
Blog post: “The Library and Twitter: An FAQ,” April 28, 2010
Blog post: “Update on the Twitter Archive at the Library of Congress,” Jan. 4, 2013


Love of the Link: The National World War 2 Museum

Love of the Link” is a new 2019 feature that spotlights a powerhouse website with at least three interactive features:

  1. Timely Content
  2. {Free} Resources for Educators
  3. Research-based best practice focus

Although “Love of the Link” is a new feature to this blog, the resources may be tried-and-true, legacy portals online.

The National World War 2 Museum operates from a busy center in downtown New Orleans. It is a living memorial, research, and education center. With both onsite and online resources,  National World War 2 Museum preserves, honors, and educates visitors about World War 11. With the upcoming 75th anniversary of D-Day, the  National World War 2 Museum is worth a day trip, field trip, or virtual visit.

The National World War 2 Museum has a rich and engaging online library of curated resources for Educators and Students.

Especially noteworthy are the Primary Source collection Research Starters. Also students and educators can investigate Webinars that include upcoming and archived selections. Check out  “See You Next Year: High School Yearbooks from WWII which showcases the pages of a high school yearbook from the 1940s, students today can catch a glimpse of what their counterparts were doing on the Home Front and how the war impacted their daily lives, especially for those preparing to graduate. Click this link to view the archived version of the Webinar.

Many other webinars and videos enrich and enliven the history of the greatest generation who fought in World War II.



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Weekend Ed. Quote ~ May 10

Today’s quote addresses leadership and includes the instructional technologists, learning coaches, and all those who interface with classroom teachers.


“…The great leader is seen as servant first…” – Robert K. Greenleaf


Read more about servant leadership at this article download: http://www.carolsmith.us/downloads/640greenleaf.pdf 




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TPaCK for Newbies

TPaCK for Newbies

What is TPaCK? Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge
TPaCK is the collective acronym for the combination of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge that teachers blend to provide student-centered instruction (Koehler & Mishra, 2005a; Koehler & Mishra, 2005b; Koh et al., 2014; Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Researchers and Professors Mishra and Koehler (2006) extended extend Shulman’s (1987) seminal work connecting pedagogy and content knowledge.

Shulman’s research (1987) integrated both content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge to more fully represent and support the complexity of effective teaching.Shulman’s research established that high-quality teachers use two domains, content knowledge, and pedagogical knowledge to promote meaningful learning. Content Knowledge (CK) is curricular subject matter knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) is how to teach content.

Previously these concepts were considered separate, but Shulman emphasized the blending of content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical knowledge (PK). Knowledge of the pedagogy inherent in the teaching process is represented as PK (Shulman, 1987). Perhaps the most straightforward of the framework’s components is content knowledge (CK). It is what teachers know about what they teach.

Shulman combined the two constructs of PK and CK in the acronym of PCK. Shulman described PCK as the “understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, represented, and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners, and presented for instruction” (1987, p. 8).

When combined, pedagogy and content knowledge (PCK) is reflected in teachers’ curriculum content and instructional decisions. As teachers group content, standards, and key facts together, they consider the best sequencing for curriculum pacing. They also think about how and when to present curriculum in ways that meet students’ learning needs (Shulman, 1987). Finally, they consider best practices for re-teaching content that is not mastered by students.

Examples of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) include project-based learning, the pacing of instruction, curriculum compacting, assessment strategies, and the process of differentiating content for the abilities and interests of all learners.

As an example, in College Prep Math, one component of a teacher’s Content Knowledge (CK) would be knowing how to multiply matrices. The PK would include knowing how to explain this knowledge to a student by using conversational language and applying the correct mathematical symbols and phrases in y-step progression. Teachers’ pedagogical techniques include an understanding of what makes mathematical concepts easy or difficult to learn for students. Shulman asserted that effective instructors have a unique and specialized pedagogy and content knowledge (PCK) that sets them apart and is unique and highly qualified (Mishra & Koehler, 2009).

Using Shulman’s work as a foundation, a framework was developed to address the addition of teachers’ technological skill (Koehler & Mishra, 2005a; Koehler & Mishra, 2005b; Mishra & Koehler, 2006) and fused the additional component of technology to Shulman’s pedagogy and content knowledge (PCK). The TPaCK instructional framework extended Shulman’s theory of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) with a specific affordance for effective teaching with technological knowledge (TK) and technological content knowledge (TCK) and technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) (Koehler & Mishra, 2005a; Koehler & Mishra, 2005b; Mishra & Koehler, 2006).

The resulting TPaCK instructional framework connects technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge in seven intersecting categories of instructional practices (Koehler & Mishra, 2005a; Koehler & Mishra, 2005b; Koh et al., 2014; Koh, Chai, Wong, & Hong, 2015; Mishra & Koehler, 2006). The seven categories of TPaCK are: Technological Knowledge (TK), Content Knowledge (CK), Pedagogical Knowledge (PK), Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPaCK).

The TPaCK model highlights interactions between and among the PCK, TCK (technological content knowledge), and TPK (technological pedagogical knowledge) components. Context is the connecting component. TPaCK provides a context for the dynamic and fluid nature caused by frequent updates of technology and content presentation. The attribute categories of Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge are not “mutually exclusive” (Mishra & Koehler, 2006, p. 1042).

Context is the connector. TPaCK is “grounded in the context of practice” (Mishra & Koehler, 2006, p. 100). In the most effective instructional environments, both online and face-to-face courses, the TPaCK attributes are interconnected (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). The intersecting boundaries of these three domains forms the interplay of TPaCK (Figure 1).


Figure 1: The components of the TPaCK framework. Reproduced by permission of publisher, http:// tpack.org

Online instructor/facilitators with emerging Technological Knowledge (TK) know how to navigate through a catalog of tools or an online inventory of hardware. Yet, that is not the complete picture. Technological Knowledge (TK) is knowing which tools to configure in the best infrastructure. Technological Knowledge (TK) is understanding cross-platform applications and capabilities. Online instructor/facilitators with growing TK skills also know when and how to work with the information technology (IT) specialist and how to describe inevitable technology issues. They use a “systematic approach” (Hilton, 2016, p. 68) to increase and maintain the technical competence needed to stay up-to-date for students. One of the best advantages of TK is its capacity to know which tools to use to create a personal connection with more learners than with traditional face-to-face classrooms communication. This is especially significant in online courses. Online course instructor/facilitators achieve personal connection with learners through voice-to-text apps, short video for check-in, individualized emails, and personalized discussion board posts. In the technological, content knowledge (TCK) domain is the knowledge about how course content needs to be delivered using technology (Koehler & Mishra, 2009; Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Technological content knowledge (TCK) represents the mutual relationship between emerging technology and teaching subject-matter content. For example, in teaching geometry, a foundational technology was the overhead projector with rolling transparency film to teach theorems. TCK understanding would now include whiteboards, document cameras, and teacher and student created videos, and video capture tools to teach theorem concepts. TCK is “discipline specific” (Spires, Wiebe, Young, Hollebrands & Lee, 2012), matching the most appropriate and cost-effective technology tools to teach curricular concept mastery. Thinking about TCK and its application with various new media and technology tools might shape conversations about future institutional use.

Technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) refers to the understanding of how teaching and learning can change when technology is used in particular ways (Koehler & Mishra, 2009). Technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) refers to the teacher’s ability to know how to use technology for instructional purposes. TPK primarily entails both a familiarity of hardware, software and how they can be used in teaching and learning. TPK also includes teachers’ understanding of how their instruction might change as a result of using a specific technology.

Educators must consider not only how to teach curricular concepts to students but also how to provide instruction in the technology being used. Examples of TPK include when to use an online or social media resource, how to create a formative or summative online quiz, and how to effectively reply to a learner’s email, or when cross-platform facility is needed between the Windows and Mac operating systems and among different web navigational browsers. Yet this knowledge alone is insufficient without deep subject matter knowledge.

TPaCK reflects the pedagogical changes in content delivery from just-in-case learning to just-in-time learning (Duderstadt, 1997; Koh & Divaharan, 2011). The U.S. Department of Education uses the TPaCK skill set as an assessment option in its Race to the Top grants program (Department of Education, 2010). The collective cluster of skills in instructor’s lesson plans may be identified and assessed in concrete rubrics (Koehler et al., 2017). However, TPaCK is not confined as a rubric assessment tool. It is “an understanding that emerges from interactions among content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge… underlying truly meaningful and deeply skilled teaching with technology” (Koehler, Mishra & Cain, 2013, p. 66). A slightly modified rendering of the TPaCK acronym with a lowercase letter “a” reflected more precisely the connecting and inclusive focus of the word “and” is often expressed in research published after 2014.

Examples of content knowledge needed for online courses reflect dates, facts, vocabulary, and concepts combined with technology tools and mobile apps. Merely uploading scanned copies of content notes or an instructor’s published research robs the learner of the social media conveyance of the current Web 2.0. It negates the pedagogy knowledge of online course content delivery and without considering this aspect, learning online will be stunted.

Knowing how to deliver content using optimal methods for knowledge transfer to course participants is the pedagogical goal of TPaCK. Using TPaCK skills in an online course reflects content knowledge but also knowing where this information resides online, how it is sequenced and how much is delivered at one time. Successful technological content knowledge involves “sequencing and chunking of materials” (Song & Yuan, 2015, p. 732) in ways that invite discussion and limit cognitive overload.

TPaCK corrals the special kinds of instructional organization demonstrated by instructors as they adroitly integrate technology into pedagogy and content curriculum (Koehler & Mishra, 2005; Koehler & Mishra, 2005b; Mishra & Koehler, 2009). Technological Knowledge (TK) is an extensive understanding of technology tools and resources. With technological knowledge, all the hardware gadgets are repurposed as beneficial classroom learning catalysts. Each technology tool has “affordances and constraints, potentials and problems” (Mishra & Koehler, 2009, p. 15).

In an example of putting all the TPaCK components together, an online teacher must know the pedagogy (technology/pedagogy knowledge) of combining shorten subject matter content bursts and abbreviated hyperlinks (technology/content) for the best rendering on a mobile device screen. S/he must know how to craft a concise and engaging discussion prompt or reply to a learners’ discussion forum post (pedagogy/technology/content/) and when to comment to add depth to an online class discussion board or real-time synchronous discussion (technology/pedagogy/content). TPaCK is a necessary framework to measure online teaching and learning because it captures what teachers currently do to increase student engagement (Koehler & Mishra, 2009; Mishra & Koehler, 2006).

Successful teaching and learning online occurs through the instructor’s combinatory use of the TPaCK instructional framework (Koehler & Mishra, 2009; Mishra & Koehler, 2006). The TPaCK instructional framework applies the theoretical concepts of constructivism and constructionism in online course design mediated with mobile technology. One example combining TPaCK with constructivist and constructionist learning theories would be online discourse between instructor and learners on the design and eventual production of an avatar- infused video. The avatar-video becomes not only a way to connect content components but also a way to think, discussion and create a learning artifact Reflecting about the video presentation, expression, concise language script, and digital storytelling components vaults the video to a “rich artifact” (Koehler et al., 2017, p. 40).

Learning online and with mobile technology is enhanced by course content that is multimodal in its constructionist design and promotes constructivist “in-situ improvisation and …sharing and creation of student artefacts [sic] on the move” (So, 2009, p. 217). The application of TPaCK for online education continues to grow (Archambault, 2016; Archambault & Barnett, 2010). As a conceptual model to measure the interplay between instructional components in learning, TPaCK has been the focus of many empirical research studies.

TPaCK studies occur in K-12, face-to-face settings (Gomez, 2015; Jen, Yeh, Hsu, Wu, & Chen, 2016; Koh et al., 2014), higher education (Archambault, 2016; Archambault, & Barnett, 2010; Archambault & Crippen, 2009), and blended learning environments (Watson & Murin, 2014; Watson, Murin, Vashaw, Gemin, & Rapp, 2013). These studies indicate that TPaCK is a valid strategy to measure the knowledge instructors need to facilitate learning with technological components. However, these studies did not give the fullest picture of how instructors used TPaCK in their lesson plan practices and lesson design practices (Koh et al., 2014). The methods used by instructors would create blueprints of practice for others. …

TPaCK combines and interconnects all the separate components of technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (Koehler & Mishra, 2009; Mishra & Koehler, 2006). The convergence of the TPaCK domains mirror the relational and interrelated aspects of Bloom’s Revised Cognitive and Affective Taxonomies (Koh, Chai & Tsai, 2010). Context is important within the TPaCK domains. Dissecting each component of the TPaCK reveals its ineffectiveness as a stand-alone instructional delivery means. The domains need their combined synergy. Examples of TPaCK applied to face-to-face and online education require relational interplay between not only content itself, but how context is presented, discussed and applied in an online environment accessed with mobile technology.


~~Excerpt from “A Mixed Methods Study of Online Facilitators’ Perceptions of Mobile Technology, Design, and TPaCK Affordances.” Helen Teague, 2017. pp. 20-29. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29276.39044
Available online at ProQuest and Research Gate: http://goo.gl/Wdp9CU and https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED576873


Archambault, L. (2016). Exploring the use of qualitative methods to examine TPACK.
In M. C. Herring, P. Mishra, & M.J. Koehler, (Eds.). Handbook of Technological
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) for Educators. New York, NY: Routledge.
Archambault, L., & Crippen, K. (2009a). Examining TPACK among K-12 online distance educators in
the United States. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 71-88.
Archambault, L., & Crippen, K. (2009b). K–12 distance educators at work: Who’s teaching online
across the United States. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 363-391.

Archambault, L. M. and J. H. Barnett (2010). Revisiting technological pedagogical content
knowledge: Exploring the TPACK framework. Computers & Education 55(4), 1656-1662.

Duderstadt, J. J. (1997). The future of the university in an age of knowledge. Journal of Asynchronous
Learning Networks, 1(2), 78-88.
Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005b). What happens when teachers design educational technology?
The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal
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(TPACK)? Contemporary issues in technology and teacher education, 9(1), 60-70.

Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., & Cain, W. (2013). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge
(TPACK)?. Journal of Education, 193(3).

Koehler, M. J., Mishra, P., & Yahya, K. (2007). Tracing the development of teacher knowledge in a
design seminar: Integrating content, pedagogy and technology. Computers & Education,
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Koh, J. H. L., Chai, C. S., Benjamin, W., & Hong, H.-Y. (2015). Technological pedagogical content
knowledge (TPACK) and design thinking: A framework to support ICT lesson design for 21st
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Koh, J. H. L., Chai, C. S., Hong, H. Y., & Tsai, C. C., (2014). A survey to examine teachers’
perceptions of design dispositions, lesson design practices, and their relationships with
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Weekend Ed. Quote ~ May 3

“… How beautiful it is to be alive
so that even in our most lumbered days
we might meet each other, hands open,
and steady the other, walking home.”
~ Rosemerry Wahtola Trommer, from the poem  Reconciliation






Poem chosen by Claudia Cummins at the First Sip blog

Photo by Till Achinger

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